A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark is a distinctive sign or indicator, used by an individual, business organization, or other legal entity, to identify that the products or services with which the trademark appears originate from a unique source, and to distinguish its products or services from those of other entities.


A patent gives the inventor the right, for a specified period of time, to prevent others from using, making, selling, offering for sale, or importing his invention without his authorization. In return, the inventor must disclose the details of his invention in a patent document that is made publicly available. In this way, patents represent a social contract between society as a whole and inventors. An innovation which the inventor prefers to keep secret is known as know-how or a trade secret. These are protected under different rules.


Design rights protect new and original visual aspects of a product or its packaging. Requirements for protection typically borrow concepts from both patent law (novelty) and copyright law (originality). The design eligible for protection must display aesthetic features and must not be predated by a known overall identical or similar design. Designs can be expressed in two-dimensional (drawing) or three-dimensional (model) formats. Designs contribute significantly to the marketability of goods and are crucial assets in several industries, for instance textiles, fashion, mobile consumer devices, computer software (interfaces), automobiles and furnishing and decoration.


Copyright is a legal concept, enacted by most governments, giving the creator of an original work exclusive right to it, usually for a limited time. It gives the copyright holder the right to be credited for the work. It is an intellectual property form applicable to any expressible form of an idea or information that is substantive and discrete.

Unfair Competition

Unfair competition in a sense means that the competitors compete on unequal terms, because favourable or disadvantageous conditions are applied to some competitors but not to others; or that the actions of some competitors actively harm the position of others with respect to their ability to compete on equal and fair terms.


A counterfeit is an imitation, usually one that is made with the intent of fraudulently passing it off as genuine. Counterfeit products are often produced with the intent to take advantage of the established worth of the imitated product.


A license or grant licence means to give permission. A license may be granted by a party (“licensor”) to another party (“licensee”) as an element of an agreement between those parties. A shorthand definition of a license is “an authorization (by the licensor) to use the licensed material (by the licensee).”


Franchising is the practice of using another person’s business model. The franchisor grants the independent operator the right to distribute its products, techniques, and trademarks for a percentage of gross monthly sales and a royalty fee. Various tangibles and intangibles such as national or international advertising, training, and other support services are commonly made available by the franchisor.

Trade Secrets

A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information which is not generally known or reasonably ascertainable, by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers. In some jurisdictions, such secrets are referred to as “confidential information” or “classified information”.

Data Protection

Information privacy or data privacy is the relationship between collection and dissemination of data, technology, the public expectation of privacy, and the legal and political issues surrounding them. Privacy concerns exist wherever personally identifiable information is collected and stored – in digital form or otherwise. Improper or non-existent disclosure control can be the root cause for privacy issues.

Domain Names

A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority, or control in the Internet. Domain names are formed by the rules and procedures of the Domain Name System (DNS). Domain names are used in various networking contexts and application-specific naming and addressing purposes. In general, a domain name represents an Internet Protocol (IP) resource, such as a personal computer used to access the Internet, a server computer hosting a web site, or the web site itself or any other service communicated via the Internet.

Market Survey & Research

Market research is any organized effort to gather information about markets or customers. It is a very important component of business strategy. The term is commonly interchanged with marketing research; however, expert practitioners may wish to draw a distinction, in that marketing research is concerned specifically about marketing processes, while market research is concerned specifically with markets.

Administrative & Public Law

Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government. Government agency action can include rulemaking, adjudication, or the enforcement of a specific regulatory agenda. Administrative law is considered a branch of public law.


Arbitration, a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), is a legal technique for the resolution of disputes outside the courts, where the parties to a dispute refer it to one or more persons (the “arbitrators”, “arbiters” or “arbitral tribunal”), by whose decision (the “award”) they agree to be bound. It is a settlement technique in which a third party reviews the case and imposes a decision that is legally binding for both sides.


Mediation may be defined as a voluntary and confidential process whereby a mediator, i.e. a neutral third party, assists the parties in finding an interest-based settlement to their dispute, without imposing a solution. The mediator assists the parties in isolating points of agreement and disagreement, exploring alternative solutions and considering compromises in order to find a mutually satisfactory settlement of their dispute. Mediators cannot make binding adjudicatory decisions. They assist the parties in reaching a settlement that is, following the parties‟ agreement, contractually binding.

Commercial Litigation

Commercial law (also known as business law, which covers also corporate law) is the body of law that governs business and commercial transactions. It is often considered to be a branch of civil law and deals with issues of both private law and public law.

Corporate Litigation

Corporate law (also “company” or “corporations” law) is the study of how shareholders, directors, employees, creditors, and other stakeholders such as consumers, the community and the environment interact with one another. Corporate law is a part of a broader companies law (or law of business associations).